1. Tumor growth risk factors. Influence of geographical areas, environmental factors. Impact of human aging. Heredity: hereditary tumor syndromes, familial forms of neoplasia, syndromes of impaired DNA repair. Pre-tumor (precancerous) conditions and changes, their nature, morphology. Dysplasia.
2. Biology of tumor growth. Tumor morphogenesis. Tumor angiogenesis, progression and heterogeneity. Features of tumor cells. Nomenclature and classifications of tumors. Histogenesis (cytogenesis) and tumor differentiation. The main properties of the tumor. Features of tumor architecture, parenchyma and tumor stroma. Types of tumor growth.
3. The most important clinical and pathological manifestations of tumor growth. Characteristics of the tumor process. Local influence of the tumor. Metastasis: types, patterns, mechanisms. Metastatic cascade.
4. Disorders of homeostasis caused by tumor. Secondary changes in the tumor. Cancer cachexia, paraneoplastic syndromes.
5. Stages of carcinogenesis. Carcinogenic agents and their interaction with cells. The most important groups of chemical carcinogens Clinical and morphological manifestations.
6. Antitumor immunity. Tumors antigens. Immune surveillance. Antitumor effector mechanisms (cellular and humoral).
7. Epithelial tumors without specific localization: benign and malignant. Histological grading. Features of metastasis.
8. Tumors of exo- and endocrine glands, epithelial layers.