Lesson 14

"Neuroectodermal Tumours. Melanocytic Tumours"

Key points:

1. Tumors of the central nervous system: neuroectodermal (astrocytic, oligodendroglial, ependymal, tumors of chorioid epithelium, neuronal, low-differentiated and embryonic), meningeal tumors. Morphological and metastatic features.

2. Tumors of the autonomic nervous system. Tumors of the peripheral nervous system.

3. Nevi, their varieties. Melanoma, its clinical and morphological forms.

4. Features of tumor growth in children compared to adults. Classification of pediatric tumors. Dysontogenic tumors: haemarotomas and hamartoblastomas of vascular origin, hamartomas and hamartoblastomas from muscular skeletal tissue, hamartoblastomas of internal organs. Teratomes and teratoblastomas.

5. Tumors from cambial embryonic tissues: meduloblastoma, retinoblastoma, neuroblastoma. Pediatric tumors that develop as the adult tumors: CNS tumors, tumors of hematopoietic system, soft tissues, bones. Features of the clinical course and metastasizing.

Glioblastoma, gross

Gliomas account for more than 80% of all primary brain tumors in adults. Most are located above the tentorium and within the cerebral hemispheres. They are poorly circumscribed. Shown here is the worst form of glioma - a glioblastoma. In this coronal section the large mass has extensive necrosis and infiltrates across the cerebral midline (white diamond) to the opposite hemisphere. Patients may initially have a new-onset seizure disorder, headaches, or focal neurologic deficits. Although this neoplasm is highly aggressive within the brain, metastases outside the CNS are rare.