Lesson 5

Cell Death. Necrosis. Apoptosis

Key points:

1. Cell death: definitions, terms and stages of development, morphological characteristics of regulated and accidental cellular death, their consequences.

2. Apoptosis. Pathogen-induced apoptosis: definitions, molecular mechanisms, term of development, microscopic manifestations, consequences.

3. Fundamentals of thanatology - the doctrine of death, its causes, mechanisms and features.

4. Birth and death. The death of the body of biological, social and medical terms: the idea of natural, violent death and death from disease (premature and sudden). Definition of intrauterine death.

5. Thanatogenesis. Structural mechanisms of cessation of vital organs activity during the natural course of the disease. The immediate effects of discontinuation of the heart, lungs, brain, kidneys and liver.

6. Biological death: the definition, immediate causes and timing of development in the natural course of the disease and in the sudden death of man. Early and late signs of biological death and death of a resuscitated patient. Morphological characteristics of corpse changes.

7. Ischemic-reperfusion injury: definitions, features of morphogenesis, morphological characteristics, consequences.


1. Kumar, Vinay, Abul K. Abbas, and Jon C. Aster. Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease. Ninth edition. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier/Saunders, 2015. P.62-66.

2. Kumar, Vinay, Abul K Abbas, Jon C Aster, and Stanley L. 1915-2003 Robbins. Robbins Basic Pathology. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier/Saunders, 2018. P.51-54

3. Klatt, Edward C. Robbins and Cotran Atlas of Pathology. Third edition. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders, 2015.

4. Klatt, Edward C., and Vinay Kumar. Robbins and Cotran Review of Pathology. Fourth edition. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders, 2015. P.3-17

5. Harsh Mohan. Essential Pathology for Dental Students.Fourth edition. Jaypee Brothers,Medical Publishers Pvt. Limited, 2011. P.1-77

Virtual slides